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The reproductive system is the biological system made up of all the anatomical organs involved in sexual reproduction. There are two main types of autoimmune diseases related to the reproductive system, autoimmune orchitis, and autoimmune oophoritis, which are causal to infertility.
Autoimmune orchitis is defined as autoimmune aggression to testis with anti-sperm antibodies (ASA) and is a cause of decreased fertility in males. According to its main cause, this entity may be classified into two categories: (1) primary autoimmune orchitis is defined by isolated infertility with ASA but without systemic disease evidence; (2) secondary autoimmune orchitis is associated with autoimmune diseases, particularly vasculitis. The usual clinical manifestation of the primary autoimmune orchitis is isolated infertility since most orchitis cases are asymptomatic. However, patients with acute orchitis typically demonstrate testicular pain, erythema, and/or swelling.
Fig.1 Immunopathogenesis of autoimmune orchitis. (Silva, 2012)
Autoimmune oophoritis is a rare disorder and presents in adolescents as a component of autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (APS). Autoimmune oophoritis is diagnosed in women with primary ovarian insufficiency in the presence of adrenal cortical or steroid cell antibodies and/or antibodies to adrenal and ovarian steroidogenic enzymes. Autoimmune oophoritis typically presents with oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea or symptoms relating to multiple follicular cysts, including pelvic pain, adnexal torsion, or estrogenic manifestations like abnormal bleeding.
Creative Biolabs is the premier drug development provider in the world. We have hugely experienced scientists working alongside our teams through a wide range of solutions, which provide expert advice and enormous breadth of advanced technologies. Our high-quality custom services provided for the reproductive system include:
By partnering with Creative Biolabs, you will gain access to our support that increases your autoimmune disease research potential to be successful. Moreover, we also offer diverse drug development platforms, including but not limited to:
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For Research Use Only | Not For Clinical Use