In 2016, we approached the centenary of the first description of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) with some comfort in the knowledge that our rapidly advancing understanding of the pathological mechanisms of the disease was informing new treatment strategies and approaches to clinical care. Treatments have been developed and proved effective, but these are not sufficient for many patients. Novel therapeutic strategies are still required. With years of experience fighting autoimmune diseases, Creative Biolabs is specialized in antibody development and cell therapy services.
GBS was described in 1916-now more than 100 years ago. The disorder was first described as a benign form of limb weakness associated with full recovery, but we now recognize GBS as a prolonged, disabling neuromuscular disorder with respiratory difficulties in nearly a third of affected patients. Its pathology is an acute, monophasic, inflammatory, mostly demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, but primary-onset axonal varieties exist. GBS commonly is precipitated by an infection, with incidence varying depending on infectious outbreaks. Our best understanding of its immunopathogenesis has come from studying patients with specific infections. Campylobacter jejuni, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus predominate as preceding infectious pathogens.
Fig.1 Current understanding of Guillain-Barre syndrome pathogenesis and clinical variants. (Wijdicks, 2017)
Patients with GBS need a multidisciplinary approach, which includes careful monitoring of vital capacity, prevention of infections, monitoring for possible autonomic dysfunction, physical therapy, and rehabilitation. Plasmapheresis and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) are the only known effective treatments for GBS.
Plasmapheresis was found to be most effective in GBS cases who received treatment within the first 2 weeks of disease onset and who are unable to walk. Two plasma exchanges were found to ameliorate mildly affected GBS cases who were able to walk. Patients with severe GBS who need a mechanical ventilator had to undergo at least four plasma exchange sessions to improve outcomes.
IVIG is preferred in young children over plasma exchange where it can be technically difficult and also in patients with cardiovascular instability, given large volume shifts that occur with plasma exchange. Patients with GBS who received IVIG showed significant pharmacokinetic variation, and patients with a low rise in serum IgG 2 weeks after treatment have a more severe clinical course and poor outcomes at 6 months after standard-dose treatment independent of other prognostic factors.
Committed to drug development of autoimmune disease, especially antibody development and cell therapy strategies, Creative Biolabs has accumulated extensive experience from every step we paid out in this field. With professional experience and enormous research, we have established a comprehensive platform focusing on the development of autoimmune disease therapeutic strategies. With advanced technologies, a mature technician team, and excellent specialists, we are capable of providing reliable antibody development and cell therapy services to global researchers. We provide our clients with high-quality services including but not limited to:
GBS still requires researchers to pay more and more effort to overcome it. As a global-leading biological pharmaceutical company, Creative Biolabs is confident to satisfy every customers’ detailed demands. If you are interested in cell therapy, drug, or antibody development, please feel free to contact us for more information.
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