Three decades ago, pioneering studies in a rat model of induced autoimmune neural inflammation identified that DCs were in close contact with T cells in inflammatory brain lesions. Since then, the crucial involvement of DCs in virtually every aspect of autoimmunity has been documented in patients as well as in animal models. In particular, novel models of constitutive and inducible DC ablation, as well as DC-specific gene targeting, have facilitated direct analysis of the roles of DCs in autoimmune diseases. Committed to cell-based therapy development, Creative Biolabs has accomplished hundreds of relevant customer-satisfied projects. Our rich experience and mature techniques make us confident in providing reliable services to global researchers.
Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized sentinel cells that bridge the innate and adaptive immune systems without directly engaging in effector activities such as pathogen killing. DCs recognize pathogens using pattern recognition receptors, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and then they migrate to T cell areas of lymphoid organs to present pathogen-derived antigens to antigen-specific T cells. Activated DCs upregulate co-stimulatory molecules and produce cytokines that drive T cell priming and effector differentiation, and they activate various types of immune cells. In the absence of activation, antigen presentation by steady-state DCs might lead to T cell unresponsiveness and might promote tolerance. DCs comprise two major classes: plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) and conventional or classical DCs (cDCs). The pDCs rapidly produce type 1 interferon (IFN) following activation through nucleic acid-sensing TLRs, such as TLR7 and TLR9. cDCs are dedicated antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that have a characteristic dendritic morphology and express high levels of MHC class II molecules.
Tolerance to self is mainly maintained through induction of antigen-specific anergy and Treg conversion. Alterations in frequencies and functional defects of Treg favor the activation of autoreactive effector T cells which might trigger autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D), and multiple sclerosis (MS), among others. Since tolerogenic dendritic cells play an important role in the induction of T cell anergy/hyporesponsiveness and the generation of Treg subsets, in vitro generated tolerogenic dendritic cells are a promising therapeutic tool to restore tolerance to specific tissue-derived autoantigens.
pDCs are a key element in maintaining the balance between immunity towards viral infections and pathogenic autoimmune responses, mainly through the induction of high titers of type I interferon. pDCs are specialized in sensing viral nucleic acids through the intracellular expression of TLR7 and TLR9, however, the exact mechanism by which the pDCs sense self nucleic acids are not well understood, but current evidence points toward the interaction of these self nucleic acids and microbial peptides, such as LL37. The sustained overproduction of type-I interferon drives aberrant immune responses and the development of autoimmune pathology.
Fig.1 Diverse functions of pDCs. (Swiecki, 2015)
With extensive experience in the development of cell-based therapy accumulated from more than 10 years of practice, Creative Biolabs is capable of offering reliable dendritic cell-based therapy development services. Over the 10 years of practice, we have equipped our platform with advanced facilities, the latest technologies, and professional specialists with high-degree. Our reliable services including but not limited to:
With advantages in multiple aspects, Creative Biolabs aspire to offer the best services and bring every customer a perfect service experience. If you are interested in dendritic cell development or you have any other questions about our services, please feel free to contact us for more information.
For Research Use Only | Not For Clinical Use