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CTDs present some immunologically mediated disorders which include rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), Sjogren's syndrome (SS), scleroderma, Ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). They are characterized by autoantibody production and immune-mediated dysfunction.
RA is a systemic, autoimmune disease that affects approximately 0.5-1.0% of the population. Onset can occur at any age, but peaks between 30 and 50 years. Disability is common and significant. In a large U.S. cohort, 35% of patients with RA had work disability after 10 years.
SLE is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease with a wide spectrum of clinical and serological manifestations. It is caused by autoantibody production, complement activation, and immune complex deposition.
Fig.1 Heterogeneity of lupus syndromes. (Lisnevskaia, 2014)
MCTD is characterized by overlapping features between SLE, SSc, and RA. Raynaud's phenomenon, polyarthritis, puffy fingers, muscle weakness, and oesophageal dysmotility are the main features.
In primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS), focal lymphocytic inflammation of exocrine glands is associated with clinical features of glandular dysfunction, particularly oral and ocular dryness.
The principle of abnormality in scleroderma is skin and internal organ thickening (fibrosis). The more serious and potentially life-shortening complications of the disease are pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), interstitial lung disease (ILD), and kidney involvement.
AS is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease of the joints and axial skeleton that primarily affects young males. The disease is estimated to affect 0.1% of the general population, and usually presents with insidious onset of back pain and stiffness during adolescence and early adulthood.
JIA is the most common chronic RA in childhood. The disease spectrum consists of various clinical conditions. Endogenous and exogenous antigens with increased inflammatory response have been shown to play a central role in the pathogenesis of the disease.
Traditional therapies for autoimmune disease relied on immunosuppressive medications. However, to control the disease, high doses are often needed in long-term treatments, which leaves the patient susceptible to life-threatening opportunistic infections and the long-term risk of malignancy. With an increased understanding of the molecular pathways of inflammation and autoimmunity, the development of targeted biological agents has revolutionized the management of connective tissue diseases (CTDs). Creative Biolabs strictly refers to the processes and standards and provides antibody development services as well as cell therapy development services, which includes but not limited to:
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